Industrial processes require a possibility of a ﬂexible joint of two or more components that move against each other, in such a way as to maintain tightness of the connection. The solution of this problem are compensa- tor fabrics produced by Gambit in accordance with individual needs of users or installation designers. They are used as ﬂexible joints compensating thermal deformations, side shift, and vibrations, while muﬄing and reducing transfer of noise across the installation. Compensators are used in power plants, gas turbines, chemi- cal industry, petrochemical industry, paper industry and cement industry. More and more compensators are used in exhaust gas treatment and desulphurisation. Our compensators are made of materials resistant to both high temperatures, up to 1000 °C, and aggressive chemical media. Working pressure of compensator fabric is -0.2 to 0.3 bar.
Application of compensator fabrics has a number of advantages. Thanks to high elasticity with minimum installation space required, small forces required during assembling and installation, and easy retroﬁtting, they can transfer and compensate displacements in all directions at the same time. Thanks to adoption of impenetrable materials (such as PTFE) they ensure high tightness of a joint at a wide range of temperatures and media.
Compensator fabrics are made in Gambit according to customer requirements, deﬁned in drawings or speci- ﬁcations. The designs are very diversiﬁed; from the simplest single-layer compensators to designs of many layers. The layers can be made of PTFE with increased resistance to chemicals as well as quartz or ceramic layers with increased resistance to heat. Upon a customer’s request we can ﬁt them with additional thermal insulation. Thanks to implementation of the advancements in material engineering, today’s fabrics, coated fabrics and ﬁlms demonstrate not only thermal and chemical resistance, but also high mechanical and fatigue resistance to multiple deformations.
Also the assembling method depends on a customer’s speciﬁcation and considers local mounting conditions. Compensators can be ﬁnished with ﬂanges, a sleeve design directly mounted to a conduit can be applied, or we can provide a customer with compensator fabrics for independent assembly to the conduit. We oﬀer ﬁve standard designs of compensator fabrics.
|Type of Fabric||Temperature|
|TKCH 280||up to 280 °C + chemically aggressive media*|
|TK 450||up to 450 °C|
|TK 600||up to 600 °C|
|TKCH 600||up to 600 °C + chemically aggressive media*|
|TK 800||up to 800 °C|
* with the exception of ﬂuoride and hydrogen ﬂuoride
Due to diversity of tasks and local mounting and operating conditions, compensator fabrics are mostly de- signed according to customer’s speciﬁcations. In order to design and manufacture eﬃcient compensators operating for a long time, detailed information are necessary, with a special focus on:
- Sealed Medium – of essential meaning to selection of materials.Compensators are generally used in ﬂue-gas installations. What should be taken into account in this case, is to specify the combustion process, being the source of ﬂue-gas, and consequently, its chemical compo- sition. Compounds of ﬂuoride and sulphur are the most aggressive ones. At extremely high temperatures attention to possible reducing environment should be paid. As chemical agents usually are more aggres- sive in liquid phase than in gaseous phase, humidity content in the transferred medium, as well as the con- densation preventing design should be considered. Also possible occurrence of soot or other particulates should be taken into account at the design stage. If solids occur, their concentration, shape and hardness, position of compensator, ﬂow rate and direction should be taken into account. Sealed medium is another key criterion when it comes to compensator tightness. The solutions used when only dust-tightness is required diﬀer from the situation when gas or toxic vapour tightness is required – in the latter case nearly absolute tightness is mandatory.
- Pressure and Flow Volume – aﬀects the compensator construction, materials used, quantity and thickness of layers and possible guards. Pressure pulses or sudden pressure jumps are of particular importance. Com- pensators manufactured by Gambit operate up to the maximum pressure of 0.3 bar. Longer compensators are deﬁnitely more susceptible to increased pressure and pressure jumps. High ﬂow volume can cause abrasion of a compensator, and when the condition of laminar ﬂow is exceeded, uncontrolled and unpre- dictable pulsation can occur.
- Displacements and Mechanical Interactions – result in both considering possible dimensional changes and application of stronger materials. Large displacements sometimes require substituting a single com- pensator with a battery of compensators. The analysis should consider axial compression and expansion, lateral displacement, side shift and twisting. Amplitude of displacements, their interval, and their simulta- neous occurrence are all important factors.
- Temperature – one of the most diﬃcult factors to be controlled when it comes to aﬀecting a compensator. It is not only the problem of protecting against too high temperature, which can be solved by eﬀective insulation. The problem is to apply insulation of compensator that prevents overheating of sealing layers, preventing condensation of humidity inside the compensator at the same time. In order to achieve such a balance, ambient temperature should be taken into account as well.